Cash Flow Adequacy Ratio indicates a company’s capability of covering capital expense, debt repayment and dividends from cash flow generated from operating activities. Cash flow adequacy cash flow formula investopedia forex the primary measure of cash sufficiency. This performance ratio should have a value of 1 or higher.
Hedge’ A hedge is an investment to reduce the risk of adverse price movements in an asset. Hedge’ Hedging is analogous to taking out an insurance policy. A perfect hedge is one that eliminates all risk in a position or portfolio. This is more an ideal than a reality on the ground, and even the hypothetical perfect hedge is not without cost. The underlying assets can be stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, indices or interest rates. Derivatives can be effective hedges against their underlying assets, since the relationship between the two is more or less clearly defined. 8 any time in the next year.
00 movement in the price of the underlying asset. Hedging Through Diversification Using derivatives to hedge an investment enables for precise calculations of risk, but requires a measure of sophistication and often quite a bit of capital. Derivatives are not the only way to hedge, however. Strategically diversifying a portfolio to reduce certain risks can also be considered a—rather crude—hedge. For example, Rachel might invest in a luxury goods company with rising margins. This strategy has its tradeoffs: if wages are high and jobs are plentiful, the luxury goods maker might thrive, but few investors would be attracted to boring counter-cyclical stocks, which might fall as capital flows to more exciting places. It also has its risks: there is no guarantee that the luxury goods stock and the hedge will move in opposite directions.
OTC’ For many investors, there is little practical difference between OTC and major exchanges. Improvements in electronic quotation and trading have facilitated higher liquidity and better information. However, there are key differences between the transaction mediums. On an exchange, every party is exposed to offers by every other counterparty, which may not be the case in dealer networks. Popular OTC Networks The OTC Markets Group operates some of the most well-known networks, such as the OTCQX Best Market, the OTCQB Venture Market and the Pink Open Market. The OTCQX Best Market includes securities of companies that have the largest market caps and greater liquidity than the other markets. The OTCBB trades stocks that are small and developing, and that report to regulators.
Pink sheets stocks come in a wide variety. Securities on OTC Networks Stocks are usually traded OTC because the company is small and cannot meet exchange listing requirements. Also known as unlisted stock, these securities are traded by broker-dealers who negotiate directly with one another over computer networks and by phone. The dealers act as market makers, and the OTC Bulletin Board is an inter-dealer quotation system that provides trading information. Some well-known large companies are listed on the OTC markets. For instance, the OTCQX trades Allianz, BASF, Roche and Danone.